# Brian's Blog cryptography

## SPAKE2 Interoperability

I've been working on a Rust implementation of SPAKE2. I want it to be compatible with my Python version. What do I need to change? Where have I accidentally indulged in protocol design, so a choice I make in this library might cause it to behave differently than somebody else's …

more…## Uniformly Random Scalars

Many cryptographic protocols, like Diffie-Hellman and SPAKE2, require a way to choose a uniformly random scalar from some prime-order range. Why? What is the best way to do this?

## What (is a scalar)?

Classic Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange starts with each side chosing a random scalar. This is kept secret, but …

more…## SPAKE2 "random" elements

SPAKE2 requires two special "arbitrary" constants M and N. What properties do these constants really need? What attacks are possible if these requirements are not met?

SPAKE2, like all PAKE ("Password-Authenticated Key Exchange") protocols, allows two people start with a weak password and then agree upon a strong shared key …

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